__Processing __

At the heart of the data processing cycle will be a process in which data has various operations carried out on it:

1- Calculation-numbers may have arithmetic performed on them.

2- Analysis- numbers or text may be analysed .

3- Comparison-data items may be compared with one another or with a set value. The process may then take a different course depending on the result of the comparison.

4- Manipulation-data may be rearranged into a new order (i.e. sorted), merged with other data, etc.

**Examples**

__Without a computer __

Calculation-a shop assistant uses a till to add up purchases.

Analysis-a shop manager analyses the takings to see which goods sell well

Comparison-a car driver sees a speed limit sign, checks the speedometer and slows down if necessary.

Sort-a teacher collects examination papers and puts them into alphabetical order.

__With a computer __

Calculation- in running a payroll program the number of hours an employee works, his rate of pay and tax code are used to calculate his wages.

Analysis-dates of birth may be analysed to produce a graph of the population by age. Comparison-a measuring device passes to a computer the thickness of steel plate as it emerges from the steel press. If the metal is too thick or too thin the computer adjusts the press.