Monday, December 8, 2014

Effects of adding additional coils and poles , electromagnetic poles and armature reaction

EFFECTS OF ADDING ADDITIONAL COILS AND POLES


The effects of additional coils may be illustrated by the addition of a second coil to the armature. The commutator must now be divided into four parts since there are four coil ends (see fig. 1-5).The coil is rotated in a clockwise direction from the position shown. The voltage induced in the white coil, DECREASES FOR THE NEXT 90° of rotation (from maximum to zero). The voltage induced in the black coil INCREASES from zero to maximum at the same time. Since there are four segments in the commutator, a new segment passes each brush every 90° instead of every 180°. This allows the brush to switch from the white coil to the black coil at the instant the voltages in the two coils are equal. The brush remains in contact with the black coil as its induced voltage increases to maximum, level B in the graph. It then decreases to level A, 90° later. At this point, the brush will contact the white coil again.
Figure 1-5. - Effects of additional coils.

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The graph in figure 1-5 shows the ripple effect of the voltage when two armature coils are used. Since there are now four commutator segments in the commutator and only two brushes, the voltage cannot fall any lower than at point A. Therefore, the ripple is limited to the rise and fall between points A and B on the graph. By adding more

armature coils, the ripple effect can be further reduced. Decreasing ripple in this way increases the effective voltage of the output.
NOTE: Effective voltage is the equivalent level of dc voltage, which will cause the same average current through a given resistance. By using additional armature coils, the voltage across the brushes is not allowed to fall to as low a level between peaks. Compare the graphs in figure 1-4 and 1-5. Notice that the ripple has been reduced. Practical generators use many armature coils. They also use more than one pair of magnetic poles. The additional magnetic poles have the same effect on ripple as did the additional armature coils. In addition, the increased number of poles provides a stronger magnetic field (greater number of flux lines). This, in turn, allows an increase in output voltage because the coils cut more lines of flux per revolution.


Q.8 How many commutator segments are required in a two-coil generator?


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ELECTROMAGNETIC POLES


Nearly all practical generators use electromagnetic poles instead of the permanent magnets used in our elementary generator. The electromagnetic field poles consist of coils of insulated copper wire wound on soft iron cores, as shown in figure 1-6. The main advantages of using electromagnetic poles are (1) increased field strength and (2) a means of controlling the strength of the fields. By varying the input voltage, the field strength is varied. By varying the field strength, the output voltage of the generator can be controlled.
Figure 1-6. - Four-pole generator (without armature).

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Q.9 How can field strength be varied in a practical dc generator?
COMMUTATION
Commutation is the process by which a dc voltage output is taken from an armature that has an ac voltage induced in it. You should remember from our discussion of the elementary dc generator that the commutator mechanically reverses the armature

loop connections to the external circuit. This occurs at the same instant that the voltage polarity in the armature loop reverses. A dc voltage is applied to the load because the output connections are reversed as each commutator segment passes under a brush. The segments are insulated from each other.
In figure 1-7, commutation occurs simultaneously in the two coils that are briefly short-circuited by the brushes. Coil B is short-circuited by the negative brush. Coil Y, the opposite coil, is short-circuited by the positive brush. The brushes are positioned on the commutator so that each coil is short-circuited as it moves through its own electrical neutral plane. As you have seen previously, there is no voltage generated in the coil at that time. Therefore, no sparking can occur between the commutator and the brush. Sparking between the brushes and the commutator is an indication of improper commutation. Improper brush placement is the main cause of improper commutation.
Figure 1-7. - Commutation of a dc generator.

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Q.10 What causes sparking between the brushes and the commutator?


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ARMATURE REACTION


From previous study, you know that all current-carrying conductors produce magnetic fields. The magnetic field produced by current in the armature of a dc generator affects the flux pattern and distorts the main field. This distortion causes a shift in the neutral plane, which affects commutation. This change in the neutral plane and the reaction of the magnetic field is called ARMATURE REACTION.
You know that for proper commutation, the coil short-circuited by the brushes must be in the neutral plane. Consider the operation of a simple two-pole dc generator, shown in figure 1-8. View A of the figure shows the field poles and the main magnetic field. The armature is shown in a simplified view in views B and C with the cross section of its coil represented as little circles. The symbols within the circles represent arrows. The dot represents the point of the arrow coming toward you, and the cross represents the tail, or feathered end, going away from you. When the armature rotates clockwise, the sides of the coil to the left will have current flowing toward you, as indicated by the dot. The side of the coil to the right will have current flowing away from you, as indicated by the cross. The field generated around each side of the coil is shown in view B of figure 1-8. This field increases in strength for each wire in the armature coil, and sets up a magnetic field almost perpendicular to the main field.
Figure 1-8. - Armature reaction.

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Now you have two fields - the main field, view A, and the field around the armature coil, view B. View C of figure 1-8 shows how the armature field distorts the main field and

how the neutral plane is shifted in the direction of rotation. If the brushes remain in the old neutral plane, they will be short-circuiting coils that have voltage induced in them. Consequently, there will be arcing between the brushes and commutator.
To prevent arcing, the brushes must be shifted to the new neutral plane.
Q.11 What is armature reaction?


COMPENSATING WINDINGS AND INTERPOLES


Shifting the brushes to the advanced position (the new neutral plane) does not completely solve the problems of armature reaction. The effect of armature reaction varies with the load current. Therefore, each time the load current varies, the neutral plane shifts. This means the brush position must be changed each time the load current varies.
In small generators, the effects of armature reaction are reduced by actually mechanically shifting the position of the brushes. The practice of shifting the brush position for each current variation is not practiced except in small generators. In larger generators, other means are taken to eliminate armature reaction. COMPENSATING WINDINGS or INTERPOLES are used for this purpose (fig. 1-9). The compensating windings consist of a series of coils embedded in slots in the pole faces. These coils are connected in series with the armature. The series-connected compensating windings produce a magnetic field, which varies directly with armature current. Because the compensating windings are wound to produce a field that opposes the magnetic field of the armature, they tend to cancel the effects of the armature magnetic field. The neutral plane will remain stationary and in its original position for all values of armature current. Because of this, once the brushes have been set correctly, they do not have to be moved again.
Figure 1-9. - Compensating windings and interpoles.

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Another way to reduce the effects of armature reaction is to place small auxiliary poles called "interpoles" between the main field poles. The interpoles have a few turns of large wire and are connected in series with the armature. Interpoles are wound and placed so that each interpole has the same magnetic polarity as the main pole ahead of it, in the direction of rotation. The field generated by the interpoles produces the same effect as the compensating winding. This field, in effect, cancels the armature reaction for all values of load current by causing a shift in the neutral plane opposite to the shift caused by armature reaction. The amount of shift caused by the interpoles will equal the shift caused by armature reaction since both shifts are a result of armature current.
Q.12 What is the purpose of interpoles?


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