Monday, January 19, 2015

Tuned circuits: resonant circuits as filters, multisection filters and safety precautions.

RESONANT CIRCUITS AS FILTERS

Resonant circuits can be made to serve as filters in a manner similar to the action of individual capacitors and inductors. As you know, the series-LC circuit offers minimum opposition to currents that have frequencies at or near the resonant frequency, and maximum opposition to currents of all other frequencies.

You also know that a parallel-LC circuit offers a very high impedance to currents that have frequencies at or near the resonant frequency, and a relatively low impedance to currents of all other frequencies.

If you use these two basic concepts, the BANDPASS and BAND-REJECT filters can be constructed. The bandpass filter and the band-reject filter are two common types of filters that use resonant circuits.

Bandpass Filter

A bandpass filter passes a narrow band of frequencies through a circuit and attenuates all other frequencies that are higher or lower than the desired band of frequencies. This is shown in figure 1-19 where the greatest current exists at the center frequency (fr). Frequencies below resonance (f1) and frequencies above resonance (f2) drop off rapidly and are rejected.

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In the circuit of figure 1-20, view (A), the series-LC circuit replaces the inductor of figure 1-16, view (A), and acts as a BANDPASS filter. It passes currents having frequencies at or near its resonant frequency, and opposes the passage of all currents having frequencies outside this band.

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Thus, in the circuit of figure 1-20, view (B), the parallel-LC circuit replaces the capacitor of figure 1- 16, view (B). If this circuit is tuned to the same frequency as the series-LC circuit, it will provide a path for all currents having frequencies outside the limits of the frequency band passed by the series-resonant circuit. The simplest type of bandpass filter is formed by connecting the two LC circuits as shown in figure 1-20, view (C). The upper and lower frequency limits of the filter action are filter cutoff points.

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Band-Reject Filter

A band-reject filter circuit is used to block the passage of current for a narrow band of frequencies, while allowing current to flow at all frequencies above or below this band. This type of filter is also known as a BAND-SUPPRESSION or BAND-STOP filter. The way it responds is shown by the response curve of figure 1-21. Since the purpose of the band-reject filter is directly opposite to that of a bandpass filter, the relative positions of the resonant circuits in the filter are interchanged. The parallel-LC circuit shown in figure 1-22, view (A), replaces the capacitor of figure 1-18, view (A). It acts as a band-reject filter, blocking the passage of currents having frequencies at or near resonant frequency and passing all currents having frequencies outside this band. The series-LC circuit shown in figure 1-22, view (B), replaces the inductor of figure 1-18, view (B). If this series circuit is tuned, to the same frequency as the parallel circuit, it acts as a bypass for the band of rejected frequencies. Then, the simplest type of band- reject filter is obtained by connecting the two circuits as shown in figure 1-22, view (C).

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Q-14. What is the device called that will separate alternating current from direct current, or that will separate alternating current of one frequency from other alternating currents of different frequencies?

Q-15. What are the four general types of filters?

Q-16. What is the filter called in which the low frequencies do not produce a useful voltage?

Q-17. What is the filter called that passes low frequencies but rejects or attenuates high frequencies? Q-18. How does a capacitor and an inductor react to (a) low frequency and (b) high frequency?

Q-19. What term is used to describe the frequency at which the filter circuit changes from the point of rejecting the unwanted frequencies to the point of passing the desired frequencies?

Q-20. What type filter is used to allow a narrow band of frequencies to pass through a circuit and attenuate all other frequencies above or below the desired band?

Q-21. What type filter is used to block the passage of current for a narrow band of frequencies, while allowing current to flow at all frequencies above or below this band?

MULTISECTION FILTERS

All of the various types of filters we have discussed so far have had only one section. In many cases, the use of such simple filter circuits does not provide sufficiently sharp cutoff points. But by adding a capacitor, an inductor, or a resonant circuit in series or in parallel (depending upon the type of filter action required), the ideal effect is more nearly approached. When such additional units are added to a filter circuit, the form of the resulting circuit will resemble the letter T, or the Greek letter p (pi). They are, therefore, called T- or p-type filters, depending upon which symbol they resemble. Two or more T- or p-type filters may be connected together to produce a still sharper cutoff point.

Figure 1-23, (view A) (view B) and (view C), and figure 1-24, (view A) (view B) and (view C) depict some of the common configurations of the T- and p-type filters. Further discussion about the theory of operation of these circuits is beyond the intended scope of this module. If you are interested in learning more about filters, a good source of information to study is the Electronics Installation and Maintenance Handbook (EIMB), section 4 (Electronics Circuits), NAVSEA 0967-LP-000-0120..

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SAFETY PRECAUTIONS

When working with resonant circuits, or electrical circuits, you must be aware of the potentially high voltages. Look at figure 1-25. With the series circuit at resonance, the total impedance of the circuit is 5 ohms.

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Remember, the impedance of a series-RLC circuit at resonance depends on the resistive element. At resonance, the impedance (Z) equals the resistance (R). Resistance is minimum and current is maximum. Therefore, the current at resonance is:

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The voltage drops around the circuit with 2 amperes of current flow are:

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You can see that there is a voltage gain across the reactive components at resonance.

If the frequency was such that XL and X C were equal to 1000 ohms at the resonant frequency, the reactance voltage across the inductor or capacitor would increase to 2000 volts a.c. with 10 volts a.c. applied. Be aware that potentially high voltage can exist in series-resonant circuits.